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Educational Research: Theory and Practice

Volume 35, Issue 2, 2024

Editor: Bob Ives

ISSN: 2637-8965

Targeted Vocal Education for Voice Disorder Prevention in Educators

Kayley Anderson — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Camilla Reimer — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Kristy J. Carlson — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Jayme R. Dowdall — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA

Abstract: Teachers are at high risk of voice disorders due to the heavy vocal demand of their profession as well as diverse classroom conditions that can stress the voice. Healthy vocal hygiene practices reduce this risk, but many teachers lack knowledge in these areas or have misconceptions about ways to improve their vocal health. This study aimed to identify knowledge deficits among teachers, and directly address topics with poorest performance to better generate vocal health resources for teachers and improve their overall vocal health.

Reference: 

Anderson, K., Reimer, C., Carlson, K. J. & Dowdall, J. R. (2024). Targeted vocal education for voice disorder prevention in educators. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 35(2), 1-7.

License: Attribution 4.0 International


Co-Educational Residential Life: Evaluation of a Pilot Program

Christi Mackey — Rogers State University – Oklahoma, USA
Lori O’Malley — Rogers State University – Oklahoma, USA
Sonya Munsell — Rogers State University – Oklahoma, USA
Mark Hickey — Rogers State University – Oklahoma, USA

Abstract: This study utilized a qualitative approach to learn about a co-educational housing pilot program in a rural serving, four-year regional university in the mid-south United States. Four individuals involved in the program took part in semi-structured interviews. Open coding analysis revealed four themes: sense of belonging, learning, gender and sexuality, and secrets.

Reference: 

Mackey, C., O’Malley, L., Munsell, S. & Hickey, M. (2024). Co-educational residential life: Evaluation of a pilot program. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 35(2), 8-12.

License: Attribution 4.0 International


2023 Tribal Leaders Study: An Emergent View on Education, Tribal Sovereignty, Leadership, and Change

William T. Holmes — University of New Mexico – New Mexico, USA

Abstract: The 2023 Tribal Leaders qualitative study is an emergent perspective from twelve Tribal leaders on education, Tribal sovereignty, leadership, and change presented as a poster session at the 2023 NRMERA conference in Omaha, Nebraska. This conceptual paper presents a review of literature acknowledging a lack of research inclusive of the voice of Tribal leaders as well as research, particularly in the areas of Tribal-specific/Native-centered leadership models and change frameworks. The research findings are presented across four focus areas. The findings are discussed and interpreted through a TribalCrit lens (Brayboy, 2022), with a conclusion and next steps presented.

Reference: 

Holmes, W. T. (2024). 2023 Tribal Leaders study: An emergent view on education, tribal sovereignty, leadership, and change. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 35(2), 13-19.

License: Attribution 4.0 International


From Classroom to Clinic: The Influence of Medical Education on Physician Shortages in the United States

Lina M. Adwer — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Taylor Nelson (Gelling) — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Kristy Carlson — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA

Abstract: The landscape of medical specialty choice is dynamic, undergoing significant changes as students’ progress through undergraduate and graduate medical training. These shifts are influenced by various factors, with financial considerations becoming increasingly relevant among medical students’ preferences. This study conducts a retrospective analysis of specialty match rates and physician compensation, suggesting a potential trend where primary care fields, though fundamental to healthcare, appear less competitive and often associated with less financial reward compared to other specialties. The existence of this disparity is not without consequences. It contributes significantly to the ongoing and anticipated primary care physician shortages. This situation requires a comprehensive approach to tackle the complex factors influencing medical students’ career choices. Understanding these dynamics is critical for healthcare policy and planning. This paper investigates how financial considerations sway medical students’ specialty choices, emphasizing the economic disparities between primary care and other specialties.

Reference: 

Adwer, L. M., Nelson (Gelling), T. & Carlson, K. (2024). From classroom to clinic: The influence of medical education on physician shortages in the United States. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 35(2), 20-26.

License: Attribution 4.0 International


Student Perceptions of ChatGPT and New AI Tools

Sheri Grotrian — Peru State College – Nebraska, USA
Lisa Parriott — Peru State College – Nebraska, USA
Brad Griffin — Peru State College – Nebraska, USA
Brady Woerth — Peru State College – Nebraska, USA
Wyatt Rowell — Peru State College – Nebraska, USA

Abstract: This paper is a review of student perceptions and usage of ChatGPT and other Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools. Technology has made significant changes in education, and in the last 30 years, none may be as impactful as what we refer to as ChatGPT as this was the first tool to make inroads into a chat-based artificial intelligence available to nearly all. Rather than viewing such a technological disruptive change in a negative light, we sought insight from students at a local higher education institution on their usage and beliefs to explore positive implications. Further investigation will lead toward how to implement and use, rather than reject, this form of technology to develop innovative teaching methods.

Reference: 

Grotrian, S., Parriott, L., Griffin, B., Woerth, B. & Rowell, W. (2024). Student perceptions of ChatGPT and new AI tools. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 35(2), 27-30.

License: Attribution 4.0 International


Exploring Lessons from Retired College Professors

Sara K. Moon-Seo — Rogers State University – Oklahoma, USA
Jin Seo — Rogers State University – Oklahoma, USA

Abstract: This study explored the experiences of retired faculty members in higher education through semi-structured interviews. As a qualitative study, researchers conducted interviews with retired faculty members regarding their joyful moments, challenges, and strategies for overcoming obstacles in academia. The study also examined the advice retired professors offered to new faculty members and the potential qualifications for success in academia.

Reference: 

Moon-Seo, S. K. & Seo, J. (2024). Exploring lessons from retired college professors. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 35(2), 31-36.

License: Attribution 4.0 International


Listening to Teachers’ Voices: Challenges and Attitudes Toward Teaching

Christina C. Pfister — The College of Saint Rose – New York, USA
Sophia Paljevic — The College of Saint Rose – New York, USA

Abstract: This small scale study looks at the challenges teachers face and their attitudes. Drawing from the literature on teacher attrition, teacher burnout, and teacher collective efficacy, we conducted semi-structured interviews with a group of five teachers selected from a convenience sample. Three themes emerged: teachers struggle with students’ apathy, they are challenged by the hierarchical nature of school decision making, and how they define their community appears to impact their attitude toward their work. Teachers who feel they have a place in the community of their school report more positive attitudes toward their work. This research adds to the knowledge base on teachers’ experiences and may help us address challenges teachers face.

Reference: 

Pfister, C. C. & Paljevic, S. (2024). Listening to teachers’ voices: Challenges and attitudes toward teaching. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 35(2), 37-44.

License: Attribution 4.0 International


Study Habits and Perceived Efficacy of Exam Practice Questions among First-Year Medical Students at a United States Medical School

Currey Zalman — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Geoff Talmon — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Kari L. Nelson — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA

Abstract: Medical school curriculum integrates pre-clinical coursework with clinical experiences to impart understanding of pathophysiologic processes and requisite skills for future physicians. Evaluation through examinations measures students’ knowledge and skills acquisition, while practice exam questions remain underexplored in studies on student study habits and exam performance. This study addresses the study habits, perceptions, and utilization of practice questions among first-year medical students (M1s). A survey conducted in 2023 revealed that a substantial proportion of students dedicate extensive time to independent study, with a majority expressing a strong preference for utilizing practice questions in their exam preparation. Notably, the survey findings underscored the perceived effectiveness of practice questions in assessing comprehension and identifying crucial content areas. Furthermore, students emphasized the value of practice questions that integrate and synthesize information across different curriculum blocks. The majority of students reported improved perceived performance on content accompanied by practice questions, highlighting the potential benefits of integrating these resources into medical school curricula. By understanding and supporting effective study strategies, educators can potentially mitigate student stress and enhance overall academic performance.

Reference: 

C. Zalman, C., Talmon, G. & Nelson, K. L. (2024). Study habits and perceived efficacy of exam practice questions among first-year medical students at a United States medical school. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 35(2), 45-51.

License: Attribution 4.0 International


The Culture, the Program, and the Supervisor: Clinical Supervision Challenges in Chinese DLI Contexts

William J. Davis — Southern Utah University – Utah, USA
Jamie H. Hamblin — Southern Utah University – Utah, USA
Torrie Rice — Southern Utah University – Utah, USA
Ruohan Gao — Iron County School District – Utah, USA
Ziyao Zhou — University of Wisconsin-Madison – Wisconsin, USA
Jiazhen Yan — Harvard University – Massachusetts, USA

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate challenges and tensions encountered by university supervisors working with student teachers in dual language immersion (DLI) settings. Despite the growth of Utah’s statewide DLI program, Utah university teacher programs have few faculty members familiar with the partner cultures and languages of Utah’s DLI model. Drawing from a larger multiple case study, this study examines three non-Chinese university supervisors’ written reflections and focus group transcripts during supervision in Chinese DLI classrooms. Findings suggest the challenges and tensions encountered by these supervisors were not just cultural in nature; at times, university supervisors were unfamiliar with the DLI model and/or unsure of whether challenges were products of cultural differences, the DLI program, or other influences.

Reference: 

Davis, W. J., Hamblin, J. H., Rice, T., Gao, R., Zhou, Z. & Yan, J. (2024). The culture, the program, and the supervisor: Clinical supervision challenges in Chinese DLI contexts. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 35(2), 52-59.

License: Attribution 4.0 International


Mastering a Life-Saving Technique: Analysis of Learning from a Cricothyrotomy Workshop

Cole J. Homer — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Kristy Carlson — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Nolan Marshall — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Randi Peavy — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Christopher M. Bingcang — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
John McClain — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA
Jayme R. Dowdall — University of Nebraska Medical Center – Nebraska, USA

Abstract: Cricothyrotomy is an emergency procedure that is utilized in situations that require immediate access to a breathing pathway. This procedure may be performed by professionals in a variety of healthcare fields depending upon the specific emergency scenario, so the development of an interprofessional workshop is imperative for procedural confidence and skill development. Our team developed a training workshop with a specific focus on procedural skills, risks, benefits, and psychological ramifications associated with a cricothyrotomy procedure. Pre-workshop and post-workshop surveys were obtained for comparison of participant confidence. Overall, the organization and delivery of a cricothyrotomy training workshop significantly increased the overall participant confidence surrounding this procedure.

Reference: 

Homer, C. J., Carlson, K., Marshall, N., Peavy, R., Bingcang, C. M., McClain, J. & Dowdall, J. R. (2024). Mastering a life-saving technique: Analysis of learning from a cricothyrotomy workshop. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 35(2), 60-67.

License: Attribution 4.0 International


Designing UDL with Equity

Sara Westerlin — Peru State College – Nebraska, USA
Helane Folske-Starlin — Peru State College – Nebraska, USA

Abstract:
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for designing lessons that is grounded in data and recognized as best practice under IDEA and ESSA. The use of the method allows for greater intervention with students socially, emotionally, and academically. UDL allows intentional and purposeful work with populations that are normally marginalized and at risk. UDL lesson planning creates an environment that addresses the least restrictive environment, is culturally responsive, and allows an environment that is trauma informed for all students.

Reference: 

Westerlin, S. & Folske-Starlin, H. (2024). Designing UDL with equity. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 35(2), 68-72.

License: Attribution 4.0 International