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Educational Research: Theory and Practice

Volume 33, Issue 3, 2022

Editor: Bob Ives

ISSN: 2637-8965

Persistent Overconfidence in Young Children: Impact of Magnitude and Peer Modeling

Tracy Arner — Arizona State University, USA
Erin Graham — Gustavus Adolphus College, Minnesota, USA
Michael Branski — California University, Pennsylvania, USA
Ibrahim S. Al Harthy — Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
Christopher A. Was — Kent State University, Ohio, USA

Abstract: Young children frequently exhibit persistent overconfidence when evaluating their own
physical and cognitive abilities. Although task persistence due to overconfidence may be beneficial
in some instances, it may also have adverse effects on academic performance. For example,
children may reduce cognitive effort because they mistakenly believe that they understand novel
tasks. The present work examined two contexts under which young children make more accurate
predictions regarding their own ability to recall previously presented items: peer modeling and
the number of items to be recalled. Two experiments using the picture recall paradigm
demonstrated that both peer modeling and item magnitude may positively impact prediction
accuracy and decrease overconfidence in young children. Despite the impact of these interventions
on children’s recall predictions as a whole, most children were still overconfident in their
judgments of learning (JOL). Thus, lending support to our hypothesis that targeted interventions
may reduce, but not eliminate, children’s overconfidence in their own cognitive abilities.

Reference: 

Arner, T., Graham, E., Baranski, M., Al Harthy, I. S., & Was, C. A. (2022). Persistent overconfidence in young children: Impact of magnitude and peer modeling. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 1-18.

License: Attribution 4.0 International

How do Teacher Candidates Perceive the Concept of Zero?

Merve Özkaya — Atatürk University, Turkey
Mustafa Albayrak — Bayburt University, Turkey

Abstract: This study was to determine how teacher candidates perceive zero. In this study, which
used the case study method from qualitative research approaches, 264 teacher candidates
constituted the participants. The participants consisted of 66 elementary mathematics, 58 special
education, 82 primary school and 58 preschool teacher candidates. The questions in data
collection tool that do not require knowledge at the level of expertise were created. The
research was conducted with candidate teachers studying in different departments. It was found
that there were no obvious differences between the candidates’ perceptions of zero.

Reference: 

Özkaya, M., & Albayrak, M. (2022). How do teacher candidates perceive the concept of zero? Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 19-34.

License: Attribution 4.0 International

Comparison of Live Demonstration versus Multimedia Instruction
for Psychomotor Skill Development in Physical Therapy Students

Christopher John Ivy — University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences, Florida, USA
Amanda A. Parrish — University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences, Florida, USA

Abstract: Hybrid learning is expanding in physical therapy education; however, a limited empirical understanding of the psychomotor domain exists in this context. Moreover, the current literature presents conflicting results. Psychomotor skill instruction traditionally uses live demonstration followed by student practice. This study compared student learning outcomes between the traditional approach and learning management system multimedia instruction in Doctor of Physical Therapy students. Using a cross-over design, half of the psychomotor techniques were instructed using each instructional strategy for cohort one and switched for cohort two. A practical examination compared student performance. Live demonstration scores were slightly higher than the LMS-embedded multimedia scores for the upper extremity techniques. While the differences were statistically significant, the partial eta squared value is small. This pattern was reversed for the lower extremity with slightly lower live demonstration scores compared to the LMS-embedded multimedia instruction. However, the difference between means was not statistically significant, revealing similar outcomes for both instructional strategies.

Reference: 

Ivey, C. J., & Parrish, A. A. (2022). Comparison of live demonstration versus multimedia instruction for psychomotor skill development in physical therapy students. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 35-46.

License: Attribution 4.0 International

Fostering Motor Development Through the Application of Nonlinear Pedagogical Design Principles in Primary Elementary Learners

Francis J. Lynott III — Peru State College, Nebraska, USA
Sara A. Westerlin — Peru State College, Nebraska, USA
Fina L. Bittner — Peru State College, Nebraska, USA
Dawn L. Mollenkopf — Peru State College, Nebraska, USA

Abstract: Applying the fundamentals of motor skill development for children in the classroom setting can prove beneficial for both student and teacher. Herein, the authors will focus on what motor development is, how this manifests itself in young learners, the concept of the nonlinear pedagogy design principles, and the importance of the movement as it applies to educational principles and practice.

Reference: 

Lynott III, F. J., Westerlin, S. A., Bittner, G. L., & Mollenkopf, D. L. (2022). Fostering motor development through the application of nonlinear pedagogical design principles in primary elementary learners. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 47-57.

License: Attribution 4.0 International

Stuck in Cycles of Problem Posing: Teachers’ Struggles to Center Vulnerable Learners in Remote Instruction

Kelli Woodrow — Regis University, Colorado, USA

Abstract: The pandemic forced schools to employ “emergency remote teaching” (ERT), so teachers had to enact new kinds of improvisation, reflection, and problem solving. This study explores how practicing teachers enrolled in graduate education programs navigated the uncertainties and unique challenges of ERT in effort to meet the specific needs of vulnerable students. Findings suggest participants’ equity-focused critical reflections rarely aligned with their practice, describing “survival” instructional practice inadequate for supporting vulnerable learners. Implications suggest that professional development and teacher preparation may need to adjust to foster better alignment between critical reflection with teacher praxis.

Reference: 

Woodrow, K. (2022). Stuck in cycles of problem posing: Teachers’ struggles to center vulnerable learners in remote instruction. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 58-72.

License: Attribution 4.0 International

How do Preservice Teachers Feel About Integrating American Indian Culture When Teaching Science?

Amanda Obery — Central Washington University, Washington, USA
Jacie Jeffers — Billings Public Schools, Montana, USA
Florence Garcia — No affiliation

Abstract: While Montana teachers are tasked with including American Indian culture when teaching science, barriers exist, such as no knowledge of American Indian cultures or low efficacy for teaching science. In an exploratory study, survey responses were collected from elementary (K-8) preservice teachers in a science methods course about their perspective of teaching science, specifically including American Indian culture. Results highlight three major structures (past culture, current community, and higher education) that support preservice teachers’ feelings of confidence when integrating American Indian culture in their future teaching. These structures are critical since most elementary preservice teachers shared discomfort or fear at the idea of including American Indian culture when teaching. As such, higher education can be a starting point to building critical understandings of American Indian culture when teaching science.

Reference: 

Obery, A., Jeffers, J., & Garcia, F. (2022). How do preservice teachers feel about integrating American Indian culture when teaching science? Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 73-91.

License: Attribution 4.0 International

Assessment of College Students’ Perceptions about the Online Learning Transformation during the COVID-19 Pandemic at College of Professional Advancement–Atlanta Campus of Mercer University

Awatef A. Ben Ramadan — Mercer University, Georgia, USA
Rui Gong — Mercer University, Georgia, USA

Abstract: Moving to online and blended education delivery during any emergency crisis needs to be creative, flexible, and unique to that particular crisis. The students’ self-motivation and active engagement decreased after the sudden move to emergency online learning. The current study explored and assessed the College of Professional Advancement–Atlanta Campus (COPA–Atlanta Campus) students’ perceptions and attitudes about the sudden transfer to the total online learning environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study was a cross-sectional descriptive study that targeted all undergraduate and graduate students of Atlanta College of Professional Advancement (COPA), using an online self-administered survey disseminated through the students’ Mercer emails from September 2021 to December 2021. We concluded that the students’ opinions, attitudes, and perceptions are critical for meeting their expectations, attaining their courses’ learning objectives, and serving them smoothly and efficiently throughout COVID-19’s emergency online learning. We recommended that higher education institutions should understand and explore the diverse motives behind students’ academic decisions during the pandemic and need to modify and give valuable insight into the organizations’ financial policies.

Reference: 

Ben Ramadan, A. A., & Gong, R. (2022). Assessment of college students’ perceptions about the online learning transformation during the COVID-19 pandemic at College of Professional Advancement–Atlanta Campus of Mercer University. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 92-105.

License: Attribution 4.0 International

Identifying Variables that Predict Community College Students’ Level of Self-Efficacy in Writing

Cristina M. Savarese — Suffolk County Community College, New York, USA

Abstract: Self-efficacy in writing is increasingly studied among undergraduates; however, less is specifically known about the variables that are associated with community college students’ confidence in their capacity to succeed on writing assignments. In this study, 434 community college students who have completed at least one semester of a freshman composition course were surveyed on their level of self-efficacy in writing, as well as on several demographic and academic variables. Linear regression revealed that students’ freshman composition course grade and college GPA were significant predictors. Results have implications for how undergraduate writing instruction can be designed to positively shape students’ self-concept as academic writers, which may ultimately help support their continued enrollment in a degree program.

Reference: 

Savarese, C. M. (2022). Identifying variables that predict community college students’ level of self-efficacy in writing. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 106-124.

License: Attribution 4.0 International

Decorative Disadvantages in a Leading Educational Psychology Textbook: The Seductive Cartoons Effect

Daniel H. Robinson — The University of Texas at Arlington, Texas, USA

Abstract: Seductive details are interesting but irrelevant details that impede text comprehension (Mayer, 2005). Whether visual images can act as seductive details remains unclear (Rey, 2012). In two experiments, 125 undergraduates read 10 pages from a leading educational psychology textbook that either included illustrated cartoons or not, followed by a comprehension test. Experiment 1 revealed no seductive cartoons effect. Experiment 2, after increasing reading time and question difficulty, revealed a seductive cartoons effect where students who saw cartoons performed worse than those who did not see cartoons. Results are consistent with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Mayer, 2005) and cognitive load theory (Sweller, 2005), where seductive information draws cognitive resources away from what is needed to process relevant information. Thus, seductive cartoons are similar to other types of visual seductive details that serve only a decorative purpose to increase interest, but also decrease comprehension.

Reference: 

Robinson, D. H. (2022). Decorative disadvantages in a leading educational psychology textbook: The seductive cartoons effect. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 125-135.

License: Attribution 4.0 International

An Investigation of the Changing Structure of Teacher-Parent Communication and Cooperation in Distance Education in the COVID-19 Pandemic

Betül Balkar — Çukurova University, Turkey
Filiz Tuncel — Çukurova University, Turkey
Burcu Demirogları — Çukurova University, Turkey

Abstract: This study investigated the changes in teacher-parent communication and cooperation during the COVID-19 pandemic and to determine how parent participation in distance education can be achieved. A qualitative descriptive design was adopted in the study. The study group consisted of 12 secondary school teachers working in Adana, Turkey, and 16 parents whose children are students of these teachers. The data were obtained through semi-structured interviews and analyzed through content analysis. The study concluded that teachers are required to be more directive and sensitive to students’ specific requirements while parents need to be more involved in communication and cooperation in distance education. Ensuring the motivation of teachers and parents in distance education is the most effective factor that strengthens the cooperation processes.

Reference: 

Balkar, B., Tuncel, F., & Demirogları, B. (2022). An investigation of the changing structure of teacher-parent communication and cooperation in distance education in the COVID-19 pandemic. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 136-153.

License: Attribution 4.0 International